If you’re looking to understand Minutes Of Angle (MOA), or even just MOA meaning, you’re in luck! In this MOA guide, we’re going to explore everything you need to know about Minute of Angle and how it relates to shooting a scoped rifle.
If you’re here to learn about MOA, there’s a good chance it’s because you’re interested in learning how to adjust your rifle scope or zero (sight in) your rifle. If so, you should also check out those articles next.
Also, if you’re curious about Milliradians (Mils), which is a similar system to MOA, please check out Understanding Mils.
Table of contents
What is MOA?
Before we dive into the deep stuff, we need to first address the acronym MOA and what it means.
MOA Definition: MOA stands for Minute of Angle and is commonly used with rifle scopes to help the shooter make adjustments to their scope to hit the target more accurately.
Now, there are a lot of parts to that, so let’s break this down starting with angles.
“Minute” is a way to refer to 1/60th of something. For example, 1 minute of an hour is 1/60th of that hour. Therefore, we now know that 1 MOA is one-sixtieth of an angle…but which angle is MOA referring to?
The “Angle” in MOA (Minute of Angle) is one of the 360 degrees in a circle. Therefore, MOA is 1/60th of one degree in a circle.
You may now be asking: “Why is MOA used with rifle scopes and long-range shooting?”
Great question! However, before we get into why (and how) MOA is used for shooting rifles, we need to first improve our understanding a bit more about what Minute of Angle is.
The first thing to understand about Minute of Angle (MOA) is that it is an angular and not a linear measurement.
That means a Minute of Angle is just like any other angular measurement… it can only refer to the angle between two things and NOT a length.
Imagine holding two laser pointers in your hand and pointing them both at the same spot on a target 100 yards away. Now, if you spread those two laser pointers apart at a certain angle, the lasers’ dots on the target will spread further apart.
If the laser pointers were spread apart at a 45-degree angle, for example, the dots would be very far apart at 100 yards. However, if the laser pointers were spread apart at a small angle, let’s say 1/60th of one degree (one MOA), then the laser pointers’ dots would be about 1 inch apart.
Pretty cool huh?
Now, even though we just learned that 1 MOA is about 1 inch at 100 yards, it is NOT accurate to say “1 MOA is an inch.” Technically, 1 MOA is precisely 1.047 inches per 100 yards. However, because MOA is an angular measurement, the linear distance (what we’re measuring in inches in this example with a ruler on the target) changes depending on how far away from the laser pointers we are. Therefore, it is more accurate to say that 1 MOA is about 1 inch at 100 yards.
Wait… did I just tell you to not worry about being precise when you’re trying to learn about precision shooting? Yes! Let me explain:
At 1000 yards, a true MOA is 10.47 inches whereas my rounded MOA is 10 inches at 1000 yards.
I argue that the 0.47-inch difference in MOA calculations at 1000 yards is not enough to worry about. For one, the 0.47 inches is slightly wider than the width of the bullet you’re likely to be shooting at 1000 yards. Second, most shooters (me included) can not appreciate the benefit of a 0.47-inch bullet impact adjustment at 1000 yards because we can’t shoot groups that small.
Now, if you’re making multiple adjustments then that can start to add up. But in the grand scheme of things (or if you aren’t doing any precise pre-calculated shots), it doesn’t really matter.
So, how big is 1 MOA at 200 yards?
1 MOA is about 2 inches at 200 yards. Yep, it’s now a 2-inch liner measurement at 200 yards even though we’re still dealing with one MOA. One MOA is about 5 inches at 500 yards, about 10 inches at 1000 yards, and so on.
Because MOA is an angular measurement, you must know the distance before a linear measurement (size on a target) can be known/calculated.
|Distance||Inches in True MOA||Inches in Appx MOA|
Minute of Angle Explanation Video
If you like how I explain what MOA is, you really should check out this video of me explaining MOA, that I filmed for the NSSF. We thought that it’d be a popular topic but we had no idea that a couple of million people would watch it to learn about MOA.
In our video, we delve into how to use MOA. In this article, we start that topic below the video.
How to Use Minute of Angle While Shooting
The biggest “aha” moment in the above video for many shooters is my advice to think in “chunks” of MOA at a certain distance BEFORE trying to calculate MOA adjustments.
The math for calculating MOA is very easy. In fact, it is so easy, that some rifle shooters get wrapped around the axle and get the wrong answer by trying to make MOA difficult.
Here’s my MOA trick:
Think in MOA chunks for the distance you are shooting.
As an example, let’s pretend that you are shooting at 400 yards. From the MOA explanation above, we know that 1 MOA will equal about 4 inches at 400 yards. Therefore, start thinking in “4-inch chunks” for our 400-yard target.
If I’m working with Mils, I just imagine centimeter-sized chunks.
If your bullet is 4 inches low at 400 yards, you know that 1 of your “4-inch chunks” will fit into that 4-inch adjustment. Therefore, you’ll need to adjust up to 1 MOA.
If however, your bullet’s impact is 8 inches low at 400 yards, then you should note that 2 of those “4-inch chunks” will fit within the 8-inch adjustment. Therefore, you would need to adjust up to 2 MOA at that distance.
Now, it doesn’t need to be even numbers to work. For example, with this method, you should be able to easily see that 1.5 MOA is needed to adjust 6 inches at 400 yards because 1.5 of those “4-inch chunks” will fit within the 6-inch difference.
This can also be useful when hunting. You can determine the diameter of a kill zone in MOA for a certain distance to know how far you’ll be able to shoot and make adjustments at different distances.
Long Range Shooting Handbook
A Beginner’s Guide to Precision Rifle Shooting
This topic, and many more long-range shooting topics, are covered in the best-selling Long Range Shooting Handbook.
What is Moa? It’s Not “Clicks”
Here’s some more advice: if you’re going to use MOA, then use MOA! Stop talking in “clicks.”
First, by always talking about and referring to MOA, you will understand how to use it better. Of course, there’s always the option to use Mils instead.
Also, by using “clicks” you’re likely to confuse yourself when switching between rifles or for you and your shooting buddy to confuse each other.
If I tell you to adjust up to 1 MOA, then it is up to you to know how many “clicks” on your scope are required to get that 1 MOA adjustment.
However, if your scope’s turret adjusts in 4 clicks per MOA and mine adjusts in 2 clicks per MOA, then me telling you to come up “2 clicks” (when I should have said 1 MOA) will result in you making the incorrect adjustment by 50%.
MOA vs Mil
I’m often asked which is better, MOA or Mils? I can’t really answer this for you.
I think in MOA because I’ve spent many years with it and have many MOA scopes. However, I usually recommend starting with Mils as, once it’s learned, I think it is a better system overall and the future of long range shooting.
However, you may just think in MOAs easier or your friends may use MOA – in this case, using MOA is going to be a better experience for you.
Minute of Angle Formulas
Here are some formulas you can use when working with minutes of angle while shooting:
Simple MOA Formulas:
Yards to Target / 100 = inches per MOA adjustment at that distance
Inches of Adjustment Needed / Size of 1 MOA Chunk in Inches = MOA adjustment
Clicks per MOA on Scope x Number of MOA Adjustment Needed = Number of Clicks Needed for Adjustment
Note, if you want to use 1.047 inches per 100 yards instead of 1 inch per 100 yards, then multiply the (inches per MOA at that distance) by 1.047
MOA -> Mils: MOA / 3.438 = Mils
MOA -> inches per 100 yards (rounded): MOA = inches per 100 yards
MOA -> inches per 100 yards (precise): MOA x 1.047 = exact inches per 100 yards
Mils -> centimeters per 100 meters: Mils x 10 = centimeters per 100 meters
To see a table with these calculations, check out the MOA table at the bottom of this article.
What is MOA? Quiz
If you’d like some practice to ensure that you understand what MOA is, here you go!
How many MOA is 3 inches at 300 yards?
It is 1 MOA. Remember, because MOA is an angular measurement, its linear size gets larger the further away you go.
How many MOA is 9 inches at 600 yards?
It is 1.5 MOA. If you think in “chunks,” you know that 1 MOA is a 6-inch chunk at 600 yards. One and a half 6-inch chunks fit within the 9-inch size… therefore 1.5 MOA. So, if you measure that your bullet impacted 9 inches low at 600 yards, you’d adjust your turret up 1.5 MOA.
At 25 yards, how far will a bullet’s impact change with an 8 MOA adjustment?
2 inches. 1 MOA is 0.25 inches at 25 yards and 8 of those 0.25-inch chunks equal 2 inches.
If your scope adjusts 1/4 MOA per click, how many “clicks” are needed to move 2 inches at 100 yards?”
8 clicks. First, you should notice that I shouldn’t have talked in “clicks.” Good job. ???? Next you should first calculate how many MOA is needed – 2 MOA is needed to adjust 2 inches at 100 yards. Next, you should note that 4 “clicks” equal 1 MOA therefore 8 “clicks” are needed.
If you’re looking for more discussion on this topic, and more questions and answers, please check out the Long Range Shooting Handbook.
What is MOA? FAQ
Q: How big is a Minute of Angle (MOA) at 100 yards?
A: A Minute of Angle (MOA) is about 1″ big at 100 yards. Precisely, is it 1.047″ big at 100 yards.
Q: Are Mil and MOA the same thing?
A: No, Mil and MOA are not the same things. However, they can be used in the same way as they are both angular measurements. “Mil” is short for Milliradian (1/1000th of a radian). To learn more about Mils, check out our Mils Guide.
Q: What is MOA used for?
Q: Which can be adjusted on a scope more precisely (finely), MOA or Mil?
A: MOA can be adjusted in finer (smaller/precise) increments than Mils for most scopes. This is because most scopes that adjust in MOA adjust in 1/4 MOA per “click” whereas most Mil scopes adjust in 1/10 Mil per “click.” At 100 yards, 1/4 MOA is 0.25″ whereas 1/10th Mil is 0.36″
Q: How many clicks are 1 MOA increments on my scope?
If you have a moa scope, it most likely adjusts in 4 clicks for 1 MOA increment. However, some scopes adjust in 1/2 MOA per click and some even have a turret that adjusts 1 full MOA per click. It’s important that you as the shooter know how much of an adjustment on your turret will move your bullet impact.
In this MOA table, we’ve given you easy conversions between MOA and Mils along with their sizes in inches and centimeters at different distances.
If you’d like to convert these numbers on your own, please see the Minute of Angle Formulas above.
|MOA||Mils||Inches/100 yds (rounded)||Inches/100 yds (exact)||CM per 100 meters|